Poly(oxymethylene) dimethyl ethers (POMDMEs) open a new route for tailoring diesel fuels. POMDMEs belong to the group of oxygenates which reduce soot formation in the combustion when added to diesel fuels. They can be produced on a large scale based on gas-to-liquid technology. The present work first gives an overview of oxygenates as components of diesel fuels and process technology for their production. Then properties and chemistry of POMDMEs are discussed in detail. A particularly favorable route for their large scale production in which they are formed from methylal and trioxane is proposed and a feasible concept for this process is presented together with data on the reaction equilibrium that was taken in a batch reactor.
G621 INGREDIENTS ETHYL ACETATE BUTYL ACETATE NITROCELLULOSE ISOPROPYL ALCOHOL ADIPIC ACID/NEOPENTYL GLYCOL/TRIMELLITIC ANHYDRIDE COPOLYMER ETHYL TOSYLAMIDE ACETYL TRIBUTYL CITRATE DIMETHYL SULFONE STEARALKONIUM HECTORITE ACRYLATES COPOLYMER OCTOCRYLENE SYNTHETIC FLUORPHLOGOPITE PROPYL ACETATE TRIBUTYL CITRATE TOSYLAMIDE/EPOXY RESIN DIMETHICONE CITRIC ACID HYDROGENATED ACETOPHENONE/OXYMETHYLENE COPOLYMER SILICA MAGNESIUM SILICATE AQUA / WATER / EAU OXIDIZED POLYETHYLENE BENZOPHENONE-1 ALUMINA COLOPHONIUM / ROSIN / COLOPHANE TIN OXIDE CAMELLIA SINENSIS LEAF EXTRACT PROPYLENE GLYCOL PHENOXYETHANOL SOLUBLE COLLAGEN CI 77002 / ALUMINUM HYDROXIDE TRISODIUM EDTA POTASSIUM SORBATE ALUMINUM HYDROXIDE [+/- MAY CONTAIN / PEUT CONTENIR CI 77891 / TITANIUM DIOXIDE MICA CI 77491, CI 77499 / IRON OXIDES CI 15850 / RED 7 LAKE CI 15850 / RED 6 LAKE CI 15880 / RED 34 LAKE CI 77120 / BARIUM SULFATE CI 19140 / YELLOW 5 LAKE CI 75470 / CARMINE CI 77163 / BISMUTH OXYCHLORIDE CI 77510 / FERRIC AMMONIUM FERROCYANIDE CI 77266 / BLACK 2 CI 42090 / BLUE 1 LAKE ] . D189992/5
Global automotive supplier DENSO and Nagoya University have developed an in-vehicle battery-based energy management system (EMS), which uses forecasting models of household electricity demand and vehicle use to reduce electricity costs. The EMS coordinates with batteries used in electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles to use their stored electricity to help keep down electricity bills. The system measures power consumption, the amount of power generated by solar panels, vehicle use, and other household characteristics to construct models for forecasting household electricity demand and vehicle use. Based on these estimates, the system controls the charging and discharging of the in-vehicle battery in real time, reducing the amount of power purchased when the rates are high while increasing it when the rates are low to save money on electricity.